職場英語:如何寫好英文信件,郵件等
文章來源:未知 文章作者:enread 發布時間:2020-03-17 07:06 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
(單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
But one aspect of English you possibly haven’t thought about yet is how to communicate appropriately in formal written situations, such as letters. This is a skill you’ll almost certainly need if you’re in the process of applying to UK schools or universities, so we thought we’d give you a handy guide on how to write formal letters and emails in English. 
Even if you’re a native speaker, this is still an essential skill to acquire if you haven’t already, both for university applications and in life beyond your student years, when you’ll almost certainly need to write covering letters for job applications, letters to the bank, emails to customer service departments of companies, and so on. So, if you’re not quite sure how to go about writing a formal letter or email, take heed1 of the advice in this article and you’ll soon be writing professional-sounding communications.
 
The right way to write a letter
When it comes to writing a formal letter, there are very clear right and wrong ways of going about it. To show you the right way of doing it, let’s make up a situation and pretend that you’re writing a letter to a university you’ve applied2 to, enquiring3 about the possibility of deferring4 your course for a year.
We’ve written out the letter in full below, so that you can refer to it as you read through the following points.
– Your address: the first thing to write is your own address. This goes at the top right-hand side of the letter.
– Date: Beneath your address, you write the date of the letter. Note how we’ve formatted6 the date here, and left a space between the bottom of the address and the date.
– Their address: Next, you write the recipient7’s address. This is left-aligned and placed below the text of your own address and the date.
– Salutation: we’ve written about these in more detail beneath our example letter, but for the purposes of this example we are addressing the recipient using “Mr” and his surname.
– Subject line: a bit like an email, a formal letter has a one-line summary after the salutation, which summarises what the letter is about.
– Body text: the main content of the letter. Use spaces to indicate a new paragraph and keep sentences clear and to the point. Make sure it’s clear exactly what you want the person to do as an outcome of your letter. In this example, we’ve put the direct question on its own separate line to make sure it stands out.
– Sign-off: again, we’ll give you more guidance on how to sign off your letter later in this article. In this example we’ve used “Yours sincerely”, for reasons that will become clear later.
– Signature: we’ve left a gap here, where you would handwrite your signature once you’ve printed off your letter ready to send.
– Print name: beneath your signature is your name printed in full.
 
Salutations in more detail
Always begin a formal letter with “Dear”, rather than “hi” or any other more informal greeting. First names are best avoided if you want to be very formal, but may be acceptable in some situations, such as when you’re writing to someone you’ve met in person and who has encouraged you to address them by their first name. In terms of more formal greetings, you have the following options:
– Sir/Madam – you start your letter with “Dear Sir or Madam” when you don’t know to whom your letter should be addressed; for example, if you’re writing to the general university admissions department and don’t know exactly who would be responsible for the handling of your enquiry.
– Mr/Mrs/Dr etc – when you know the name of the person to whom you are writing, address them using their surname and title. For men, this should be Mr Smith (unless you know that he has another title, e.g. Dr Smith or Captain Smith) and for women, this should be Ms Smith unless you know for sure that she has another title or prefers to use Mrs or Miss.
 
Signing off a letter
There are several ways of signing off a formal letter. These are:
– Yours faithfully, – this is used when you’ve started your letter with “Dear Sir or Madam”.
– Yours sincerely, – this is used when you’ve addressed a named individual in your letter.
– Yours truly, – this can be used when you’re writing to someone you know slightly. This is more common in America.
These should all have a comma at the end, as in the examples above.
 
Email
 
Email is generally considered less formal than a letter, but that’s not to say that you can descend8 into over-familiarity or slang when you’re writing to someone important, such as a university admissions tutor (who will not be impressed if you’re not able to communicate professionally). You must remain respectful and professional at all times, even in this more informal medium.
You don’t need to lay out your email in the style of the letter in the example above, but there are a few special considerations and things that are done differently in emails as opposed to letters.
 
The email address you use
 
For the purposes of emailing important people – such as university tutors or potential employers – it’s best to have a professional-looking email address. Low-quality free email providers such as Hotmail and Yahoo are best avoided (Gmail is still considered acceptable), and although we probably all have childish email addresses with silly handles like “shopgirl1990” that we set up years ago, they won’t give a very good impression to the person you’re emailing. As a general rule, firstname.lastname@emailprovider.com is a good format5 for your email address.
 
To/from field
 
The email equivalent of putting your address and your recipient’s address is the To/From field of your email. This may not seem important, but there are a few things to bear in mind:
– Ensure that the “From” field is properly configured. It should simply be your first and last names, appropriately capitalised and spelt correctly, with no extra bits like hearts or exclamation9 marks.
– Put your recipient’s email address in the “To” field if you’re emailing one person.
– If there’s someone else you think should see the email for their information, but you’re not directly addressing it to them, put their email in the “CC” field. This stands for “Carbon Copy”, and it means that they will see the email but will also see that it’s not directly addressed to them. Don’t use it unless there is a real need for this person to see the communication.
– If you’re emailing several people, it’s bad form to include all their email addresses in the “To” field. In this instance, you should put your own email address in the “To” field and put those of your recipients10 into the “BCC” field. This stands for “Blind Carbon Copy”, and it means they’ll all see the email but won’t see who else you’ve sent it to.
 
Subject line
 
Write something descriptive in the subject line that summarises what the email is about. Don’t make it too long. If you were emailing about the query11 covered in our example letter earlier, for instance, the subject line could simply be “Deferring course entry”. A descriptive subject line makes it easier for people to find an email among a mass of others, and will also ensure that they do bother to read it. Don’t forget, people receive dozens of emails every day, so yours could easily get lost in their inbox if you put a generic12 subject line such as “Enquiry”.
Another word of caution: avoid words like “Urgent” unless it’s a genuine emergency (for instance, you could miss a deadline if they don’t respond quickly). Marking something as urgent when it isn’t will only annoy the recipient, who has many other demands on their time. For the same reason, avoid marking the email as “important” if your email provider has a dedicated13 button for this.
 
Salutation
 
Email greetings are generally more relaxed than letters, though if you want to be formal then it’s still fine to start your email with “Dear Mr Smith” if you’re emailing a named individual or “Dear Sir or Madam” if you’re emailing a generic email address such as admissions@pretenduniversity.com. If you’ve met the person before, or they’ve emailed you before, first names are acceptable if this is how they have signed their emails to you previously14. In such a situation, it’s also acceptable to use a slightly less formal greeting, such as “Hello” or even “Hi”.
However, go by how they address you; if their emails to you start “Dear”, you reply with “Dear”; if they start “Hi”, you can reply with “Hi”. An alternative email greeting that lies somewhere between formal and informal is “Good morning” or “Good afternoon”. This is perhaps a little friendlier and more personal than “Dear”, so if your style is not naturally very formal then this is an acceptable form of email greeting.
 
Signing off an email
 
Again, with email being more informal than a letter, a very formal sign-off such as “Yours sincerely” can sound a little odd in an email. If you have started your email in the formal style of a letter then it makes sense to finish it in this way, but if you’ve adopted one of the less formal salutations outlined just now, you have a few different options for how you could sign off. These common conventions include:
– Best wishes,
– Kind regards,
– Best regards,
– All the best,
– Thanks,
– Thanks in advance,
– Many thanks,
The latter three can be used when you’ve asked for something or asked a question. With all of these, make sure you have a comma at the end of the line, as in the examples above.
If you have a standard email signature that’s included automatically in all your emails, make sure that its contents are completely appropriate for the person to whom you are sending the email. Jokes, funny images and such like are not appropriate for a formal email.
 
Other tips for writing formally
 
There are a few more general pointers for writing formally to ensure that you maintain that professional image with which to impress your recipient.
– Never use slang – avoid slang and colloquialisms15 when you’re writing formally. It goes without saying that you should never swear, either.
– Don’t waffle – explain what you’re trying to say as clearly and concisely16 as possible if you expect them to read it in full. Keep your communication short and to the point.
– Always proofread17 – good spelling and grammar are absolutely essential, so check your communication thoroughly18 before it gets sent off (the spell check will do for an initial check, but you’ll still need to read through it to correct anything that it might not have picked up on). Any errors will completely shatter your professional image! – In emails, avoid unnecessary attachments19, emoticons and so on.
 
You will undoubtedly20 have occasion to write a formal letter at some point, and sending emails has become a daily occurrence for most of us. Taking on board the tips in this article will ensure that you convey a professional demeanour in your written communications, and this will stand you in good stead in any number of situations in which you find yourself in the future.


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 heed ldQzi     
v.注意,留意;n.注意,留心
參考例句:
  • You must take heed of what he has told.你要注意他所告訴的事。
  • For the first time he had to pay heed to his appearance.這是他第一次非得注意自己的外表不可了。
2 applied Tz2zXA     
adj.應用的;v.應用,適用
參考例句:
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算學習應用語言學課程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.這種乳霜最好晚上擦臉用。
3 enquiring 605565cef5dc23091500c2da0cf3eb71     
a.愛打聽的,顯得好奇的
參考例句:
  • a child with an enquiring mind 有好奇心的孩子
  • Paul darted at her sharp enquiring glances. 她的目光敏銳好奇,保羅飛快地朝她瞥了一眼。
4 deferring d2cd9fb6ccdde7a0a9618fb4ae1b4833     
v.拖延,延緩,推遲( defer的現在分詞 );服從某人的意愿,遵從
參考例句:
  • Recently, the Supreme Court has focused on an additional reason for deferring to administrative agencies. 最近,最高法院強調了尊重行政機構的另一種理由。 來自英漢非文學 - 環境法 - 環境法
  • Think of it as deferring part of the compiler's job to runtime. 可以認為這是將編譯器的部分工作延遲到了運行時。 來自互聯網
5 format giJxb     
n.設計,版式;[計算機]格式,DOS命令:格式化(磁盤),用于空盤或使用過的磁盤建立新空盤來存儲數據;v.使格式化,設計,安排
參考例句:
  • Please format this floppy disc.請將這張軟盤格式化。
  • The format of the figure is very tasteful.該圖表的格式很雅致。
6 formatted d6662047e8b97c2e90951b68861489e7     
adj. 格式化的 動詞format的過去式和過去分詞形式
參考例句:
  • Recovers Data even if DRIVE NOT FORMATTED message is displayed. 復蘇的數據,即使驅動器未格式化的訊息顯示。
  • Cold-blood vertebrate has formatted multi-cold adaptation artifice in the various habitation environment. 冷血脊椎動物在多種多樣棲息環境中形成多種耐寒策略。
7 recipient QA8zF     
a.接受的,感受性強的 n.接受者,感受者,容器
參考例句:
  • Please check that you have a valid email certificate for each recipient. 請檢查是否對每個接收者都有有效的電子郵件證書。
  • Colombia is the biggest U . S aid recipient in Latin America. 哥倫比亞是美國在拉丁美洲最大的援助對象。
8 descend descend     
vt./vi.傳下來,下來,下降
參考例句:
  • I hope the grace of God would descend on me.我期望上帝的恩惠。
  • We're not going to descend to such methods.我們不會淪落到使用這種手段。
9 exclamation onBxZ     
n.感嘆號,驚呼,驚嘆詞
參考例句:
  • He could not restrain an exclamation of approval.他禁不住喝一聲采。
  • The author used three exclamation marks at the end of the last sentence to wake up the readers.作者在文章的最后一句連用了三個驚嘆號,以引起讀者的注意。
10 recipients 972af69bf73f8ad23a446a346a6f0fff     
adj.接受的;受領的;容納的;愿意接受的n.收件人;接受者;受領者;接受器
參考例句:
  • The recipients of the prizes had their names printed in the paper. 獲獎者的姓名登在報上。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • The recipients of prizes had their names printed in the paper. 獲獎者名單登在報上。 來自《現代英漢綜合大詞典》
11 query iS4xJ     
n.疑問,問號,質問;vt.詢問,表示懷疑
參考例句:
  • I query very much whether it is wise to act so hastily.我真懷疑如此操之過急地行動是否明智。
  • They raised a query on his sincerity.他們對他是否真誠提出質疑。
12 generic mgixr     
adj.一般的,普通的,共有的
參考例句:
  • I usually buy generic clothes instead of name brands.我通常買普通的衣服,不買名牌。
  • The generic woman appears to have an extraordinary faculty for swallowing the individual.一般婦女在婚后似乎有特別突出的抑制個性的能力。
13 dedicated duHzy2     
adj.一心一意的;獻身的;熱誠的
參考例句:
  • He dedicated his life to the cause of education.他獻身于教育事業。
  • His whole energies are dedicated to improve the design.他的全部精力都放在改進這項設計上了。
14 previously bkzzzC     
adv.以前,先前(地)
參考例句:
  • The bicycle tyre blew out at a previously damaged point.自行車胎在以前損壞過的地方又爆開了。
  • Let me digress for a moment and explain what had happened previously.讓我岔開一會兒,解釋原先發生了什么。
15 colloquialisms 3686fccd90715169dd3cfc08dbbd3b1e     
n.俗話,白話,口語( colloquialism的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • There are as many colloquialisms in Japanese as are in Chinese. 中日文中存在著大量的四字熟語。 來自互聯網
  • It is getting better, but It'still struggles with colloquialisms and idioms. 機器翻譯的質量雖然有所改善,但翻譯起口語體和習語來還是困難重重。 來自互聯網
16 concisely Jvwzw5     
adv.簡明地
參考例句:
  • These equations are written more concisely as a single columnmatrix equation. 這些方程以單列矩陣方程表示會更簡單。 來自辭典例句
  • The fiber morphology can be concisely summarized. 可以對棉纖維的形態結構進行扼要地歸納。 來自辭典例句
17 proofread ekszrH     
vt.校正,校對
參考例句:
  • I didn't even have the chance to proofread my own report.我甚至沒有機會校對自己的報告。
  • Before handing in his application to his teacher,he proofread it again.交給老師之前,他又將申請書補正了一遍。
18 thoroughly sgmz0J     
adv.完全地,徹底地,十足地
參考例句:
  • The soil must be thoroughly turned over before planting.一定要先把土地深翻一遍再下種。
  • The soldiers have been thoroughly instructed in the care of their weapons.士兵們都系統地接受過保護武器的訓練。
19 attachments da2fd5324f611f2b1d8b4fef9ae3179e     
n.(用電子郵件發送的)附件( attachment的名詞復數 );附著;連接;附屬物
參考例句:
  • The vacuum cleaner has four different attachments. 吸塵器有四個不同的附件。
  • It's an electric drill with a range of different attachments. 這是一個帶有各種配件的電鉆。
20 undoubtedly Mfjz6l     
adv.確實地,無疑地
參考例句:
  • It is undoubtedly she who has said that.這話明明是她說的。
  • He is undoubtedly the pride of China.毫無疑問他是中國的驕傲。
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